1243 CE, 640 A.H Turkish nomads settle in Asia Minor.
1299-1326 CE, 698-726 A.H At one time there was
fighting between the Mongols and the Sultan Seljook. One Turkish group lead by Arthghul
passed there. When he saw that two groups were fighting he decided to help the weaker
group, the Turks. He helped in such a way that the Mongols lost. The sultan rewarded
Arthghul with land in return. In 1288 CE, Arthghul died and his son Osman Khan took his
place. In 1300 CE, Sultan Seljook died in a fight with the Mongols. Osman Khan made a
self-ruled government that later became known as the Ottoman Empire. Osman Khan's
boundaries were with the Byzantine. There were constant battles with the Byzantines and
after time, Osman Khan conquered many lands and also the city of Bursa. After his death,
his son Ar Khan took over.
1326-1359 CE, 726-1359 A.H Ar Khan. Muslims started
conquering Eastern Europe like Gallipoly and areas adjoining Gallipoly. At Ar Khan's
death, the Turkish lands were more than three times then before. They started building
mosques, schools, etc and also made Ottoman Empire currency.
1359-1389 CE, 726-791 A.H Murad Awwal reign. At this
time, the empire became five times more then Ar Khan's empire and in this time they
conquered Bosnia, Kosova, etc. He also conquered many areas in Asia.
1389-1402 CE, 791-804 A.H Bayezid's reign. In his
reign, he adopted the title of Sultan. When he was trying to conquer more lands in Europe,
the Samarkand ruler, Amir Timur fought and defeated him.
1413-1421 CE, 804-824 A.H Muhammad Awwal's reign and
the second period of the Ottomans starts. Muhammad Awwal promoted arts and poetry.
1421-1451 CE, 824-855 A.H Murad Dawm's reign. He
recaptured a lot of lands that Timur had taken from them. Murad Dawm was a very good
1451-1481 CE, 855-886 A.H Muhammad Fatih's reign. He
conquered Constantinople in 1453 CE. He strengthened the navy and they conquered Italy and
Otoranto. During Muhammad Fatih's reign, the empire spread greatly.
1481-1512 CE, 886-918 A.H Bayezid II reign. The
empire didn't expand but it got strong.
1512-1520 CE, 918-926 A.H Salim becomes ruler. Up
till this time, the Turks had been trying to conquer Europe. Now, Salim concentrated on
the east. They conquered Iran and then went to Egypt and reached Cairo.
1520-1566 CE, 926-974 A.H Sulaiman's reign. The
Ottoman empire reached it's height at this time. Sulaiman was called the Magnificent by
the Europeans and the Lawgiver by his own people. His empire reached from Hungary to
Egypt, Algeria to Mesopotamia. The Turkish navy was very strong. The navy fought the
Portuguese who used to bother the Africans and Asians. Sulaiman promoted arts and
Istanbul's most beautiful mosque was built during his time. After Sulaiman, for some time
there were no good rulers.
1661-1676 CE, 974-1087 A.H Ahmad becomes ruler.
During this time, Europe was becoming powerful and he had to constantly battle with them.
He made many reforms. After him, the Ottomon rulers had to keep on battling with the
Europeans. In 1699 CE a treaty was signed ceding Hungary to Europe. The internal and
external problems continued and in 1923 CE the empire ended.