Ottoman Empire

1243 CE, 640 A.H Turkish nomads settle in Asia Minor.

1299-1326 CE, 698-726 A.H At one time there was fighting between the Mongols and the Sultan Seljook. One Turkish group lead by Arthghul passed there. When he saw that two groups were fighting he decided to help the weaker group, the Turks. He helped in such a way that the Mongols lost. The sultan rewarded Arthghul with land in return. In 1288 CE, Arthghul died and his son Osman Khan took his place. In 1300 CE, Sultan Seljook died in a fight with the Mongols. Osman Khan made a self-ruled government that later became known as the Ottoman Empire. Osman Khan's boundaries were with the Byzantine. There were constant battles with the Byzantines and after time, Osman Khan conquered many lands and also the city of Bursa. After his death, his son Ar Khan took over.

1326-1359 CE, 726-1359 A.H Ar Khan. Muslims started conquering Eastern Europe like Gallipoly and areas adjoining Gallipoly. At Ar Khan's death, the Turkish lands were more than three times then before. They started building mosques, schools, etc and also made Ottoman Empire currency.

1359-1389 CE, 726-791 A.H Murad Awwal reign. At this time, the empire became five times more then Ar Khan's empire and in this time they conquered Bosnia, Kosova, etc. He also conquered many areas in Asia.

1389-1402 CE, 791-804 A.H Bayezid's reign. In his reign, he adopted the title of Sultan. When he was trying to conquer more lands in Europe, the Samarkand ruler, Amir Timur fought and defeated him.

1413-1421 CE, 804-824 A.H Muhammad Awwal's reign and the second period of the Ottomans starts. Muhammad Awwal promoted arts and poetry.

1421-1451 CE, 824-855 A.H Murad Dawm's reign. He recaptured a lot of lands that Timur had taken from them. Murad Dawm was a very good ruler.

1451-1481 CE, 855-886 A.H Muhammad Fatih's reign. He conquered Constantinople in 1453 CE. He strengthened the navy and they conquered Italy and Otoranto. During Muhammad Fatih's reign, the empire spread greatly.

1481-1512 CE, 886-918 A.H Bayezid II reign. The empire didn't expand but it got strong.

1512-1520 CE, 918-926 A.H Salim becomes ruler. Up till this time, the Turks had been trying to conquer Europe. Now, Salim concentrated on the east. They conquered Iran and then went to Egypt and reached Cairo.

1520-1566 CE, 926-974 A.H Sulaiman's reign. The Ottoman empire reached it's height at this time. Sulaiman was called the Magnificent by the Europeans and the Lawgiver by his own people. His empire reached from Hungary to Egypt, Algeria to Mesopotamia. The Turkish navy was very strong. The navy fought the Portuguese who used to bother the Africans and Asians. Sulaiman promoted arts and Istanbul's most beautiful mosque was built during his time. After Sulaiman, for some time there were no good rulers.

1661-1676 CE, 974-1087 A.H Ahmad becomes ruler. During this time, Europe was becoming powerful and he had to constantly battle with them. He made many reforms. After him, the Ottomon rulers had to keep on battling with the Europeans. In 1699 CE a treaty was signed ceding Hungary to Europe. The internal and external problems continued and in 1923 CE the empire ended.